New York grew to prominence only seventy years after Unites States independence. “By … 1853, English visitors marveled that Broadway’s stores and hotels were ‘more like the palaces of kings than places for the transaction of business.’ scarlet and yellow omnibuses thundered up and down Broadway with private carriages, hotel stagecoaches, and two-horse hackneys …
“And yet there was another side of New York, one that could be glimpsed by peering down Broadway’s side streets where ragged women carried bundles of broken boards and old timbers from demolished buildings trailed by children loaded down with only slightly lighter burdens. … In 1851, a fourth of the 16,000 criminals sent to City Prison were younger than 21 — 800 were younger than 15, and 175 were younger than 10.
“Many of the poorest New Yorkers were recent immigrants — by 1850 nearly half of the city’s residents had been born overseas. The newcomers, most of them Irish and German, were packed into squalid, suffocating tenements … where cholera, typhus, and tuberculosis were rampant and the murder rate was the highest in the Western world … fewer than half of the children born in the 1850s survived to the age of six.”
Agitation for reform brought new laws that culminated in the New York State Tenement House Act of 1901 that banned construction of dark, poorly ventilated tenement buildings. The law required that new buildings must be built with outward-facing windows in every room, an open courtyard, proper ventilation systems, indoor toilets, and fire safeguards.
The opening of the West gave immigrants new choices if they could face the arduous journey and settlement requirements.
We have made some progress in the way we treat pioneering immigrants.
From Delancy Place’s December 8, 2017 blog, excerpt from The Unexpected President by Scott S. Greenberger.
New York State Tenement House act, Wikipedia.